Types of Periodontal Disease


Gingivitis is the mildest form of periodontal disease. Plaque (infectious periodontal bacteria) collects in the space between the gums and teeth (sulcus) and begins to infect your gums. It causes the gums to become red, swollen, and bleed easily. There is usually little or no discomfort at this stage. Gingivitis is reversible with professional treatment and good at home oral care.

Mild Periodontitis

If gingivitis, the mildest form of periodontal disease, is left untreated, it can advance to periodontitis. In the mild stage, periodontal diseases begin to destroy the bone and tissue that support the teeth.

Moderate Periodontitis

Moderate periodontitis develops if the milder forms of periodontal disease are left untreated. Plaque and calculus (tartar) now extends deeper under your gums. Eliminating all the infectious bacteria through your normal home care routine is impossible. If your gums are bleeding, infectious bacteria can enter your blood stream and travel to other parts of the body. At this stage, periodontal disease will cause loss of bone and gum tissue that supports the teeth. If left untreated, moderate periodontitis will progress to the next stage.

Advanced Periodontitis

As the bacterial plaque extends deeper under the gums and the infection becomes more virulent, the loss of bone and supporting tissue becomes significant. The risk of tooth loss increases dramatically. Abscesses can occur and teeth can become loose and shift. Without treatment, advanced periodontitis will result in tooth loss.